What are Pheromones?

Social insects like ants have long been using information sharing technologies (pheromone chemicals) to gain organizational flexibility and sustainability via decentralized government. As decentralized social media are emerging in our own societies, can we learn from ants how to preserve our diversity, individuality and social cohesion and establish our own new social contract?

Movie poster for the ant story Antz

Watch fun study of insects


In this ant story, Z  is  an 

unhappy ant in a colony of

millions. Z minds 

the humdrum of life among

active ants, who were the

first  farmers. Hence, he

agrees to trade places with

a soldier friend. Things get

out of hand when he finds

himself headed to a Termite War, and succeeds in becoming a hero overnight. The story creates fun by showing how do ants communicate and provides a satire of the ant societies and their ant welfare system.

Book cover for The Ant and the Grasshopper, the best ant story from Aesop and La Fontaine

Can Ants Teach Us

How To Use Social Media?

All organizations rely on division of labor to optimize resources for survival or the greater good of societies. In human organizations, roles are usually allocated from the top by leaders, engineers, or other traditional gurus. Are societies with decentralized governement cheaper to operate? Are social media and distributed technology, like blockchain which offers instantaneous information sharing, a step towards the ultimate disruption and transformation of our society? How should individuals decide what to do to succeed in our fast changing world? Well, clues to start answering these questions emerge from the study of social insects like ants.

The First Farmers

10,000 years ago, humans gave up their life as hunter-gatherers to become farmers. For the Attini ants from South America, this critical agricultural revolution took place at the end of the dinosaur age, some 65 million years ago, when they became the first farmers, farming fungus “to produce edible proteins, lipids [fats] and carbohydrates through decomposition.” In both cases, converting to farming was not immediately successful. It required further evolution on two fronts: technology and organization, state a research in Nature Communications.

For the ants, the technological success was the domestication of fungus species that were metabolically more efficient to digest and immune from gene exchange with the wild. In parallel, ants developed “complex societies with industrial-scale farming,” able to react quickly to environmental changes (e.g. availability of fresh leaves or other organic material, the fuel to grow fungus) and resist to adverse events (e.g. wars).

Study of Insects Organization

There are different types of social insect organization, says a study published in Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. One model relies on specialization of role based on age or morphology. For instance, largest ants with augmented mandibles cut the green leaves, while the mid-sized ones transport them back to the nest, and the smaller workers harvest the fungus. Similarly, older ants have better knowledge of the nest surroundings and specialize in finding food supply. To meet the colony need, the exact type and number of ants must be produced given the external conditions, factoring in breeding latency and mortality rate. Such systems are generally efficient in stable habitat but suffer from a lack of reactivity in more volatile environments.

How Do Ants Use Pheromones?

In contrast, the key to adaptability is decentralized government, with individual members monitoring the ant welfare system and switching task upon the occurrence of certain stimuli such as nest temperature or chemical secretion (pheromone). Some systems are based on local need, i.e. inactive ant workers (the "Lazy Ants") wander and engage in tasks only when stumbling upon the stimuli. In other systems, each worker is subject to the same stimuli but act differently based on their respective response thresholds. Such threshold can be set genetically or during larva development, possibly changing with age.  The key to flexible organizations is to produce, gather and interpret information without incurring prohibitive costs, measured by time and energy (i.e. food in the case of ants) consumed by the workers.

Decentralized government

However, the ability of individual members to process decentralized information helps the colony to be smarter about its environment, enhancing its decision making. One example described in the Newscientist is the process by which ants select their home.  The more satisfied an ant is with a possible location for a nest, the more time it spends secreting its pheromone in it. And the more chemicals, the more likely other ants will join to form the nest. Here again, the various response thresholds play a role. Ants with the lower response thresholds seed the majority that will accept the new location, while the ants with the higher response thresholds will continue to scout for a better place, providing evidence of individual behaviors for the greater good of societies.

How Do Ants Communicate ?

Similarly, when a worker finds food, the ant brings back a piece of it to the nest, leaving behind a trail of pheromone for other ants to follow it back to the food source, says another research published in PNAS. Other scouting ants will likely do the same, resulting in lots of pheromone trails more or less efficient. However, the shorter the trail, the stronger the chemical, prompting more ants to take the shortest way, in turn reinforcing the scent and quickly establishing the optimized route to the food source. This sorting of the most relevant information is very fast and more reliable than most of our internet search engines. Emulating such optimization process in future information sharing technology is the next challenge for human organizations and the social media industry.

Decentralized Social Media

Many industries are embracing today the challenge of managing decentralized information enabled by social network and distributed technology. Collecting information from smartphones, social media or other data mining can be the key to flexible organizations and help predict future events or solve optimization problems. It can be as simple as reducing congestion in airports, like at Narita Airport near Tokyo, where immigration counters were insufficient to absorb the increase in foreign visitors, resulting in long waiting times. Continuous information sharing about the number of non-Japanese passengers en route for Narita was introduced in January 2015 between airlines, airport operator and the Ministry of Justice. This allowed operational flexibility and bottom-up decision-making regarding the number of counter to open upon passenger arrival, cutting wait times in half.

Another original application reported by Science Advances is the detection of large earthquakes via the GPS included in smartphones. If a sufficient number of phones in the same area reports at the same time the same displacement of at least 5 centimeters in the same direction, this would indicate the occurrence of an earthquake of magnitude 7. Per simulation performed in California, less than 5,000 phones would be needed to detect such seismic wave in just 5 seconds, quickly enough to launch an alert to nearby large cities and deploy protective measures.

Best Welfare System

Of course, the increased usage of information sharing technologies to optimize and automate tasks in human organizations or societies add to the fear of job reduction and social injustice ("will robots take my jobs?"). Looking again at social insects where 50 to 70% of workers are inactive provides surprising perspectives. Keeping a spare number of inactive ants may save energy while remaining ready for peak workload, including war or new colony settlements. The key to flexible organizations may depend on the right balance of response threshold in ants to stimuli created by the conditions surrounding the social insect colonies.

New Social Contract for the Machine Age

If human societies continue to emulate ant organizations millions-of-years later like they did when adopting farming, the next challenge to prevent social injustice created by new information sharing technologies while gaining further efficiency and improve sustainability will be the establishment of a new social contract. One similar to the ant welfare system that supports inactive workers in exchange for call of duty upon the occurrence of common purposes. Hopefully such calls will not be for wars, but for more peaceful endeavors like opening human settlements on Mars or in a galaxy far, far away...

Ants are so much like human beings as to be an embarrassment. They farm fungi, raise aphids as livestock, launch armies into war, use chemical sprays to alarm and confuse enemies, capture slaves, engage in child labour, exchange information ceaselessly. They do everything but watch television." Lewis Thomas

Can ants teach us how to use social media?

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​​​​Making of our video about Lessons from Ants​ :

Watch SpareTag.com Video

​​Other Related Posts :

Listen to Lessons from Ants

Soundtrack for a SpareTag.com video about how human societies evolved similarly to ant colonies for 65 million years.  Ants were the first farmers, the first to have decentralized government, the first to use information sharing technologies called pheromone, and the first to develop one of the best welfare system.  Are there more lessons from ants that we can emulate to improve our best welfare system and make our society more sustainable?

"If ants are such busy workers, how come they find time to go to all the picnics?"Marie Dressler

​All visuals were selected, edited, animated and colored by SpareTag.com to form the following sequences for our original 90-second video:

  1. Who were the first farmers: Some 65 million years ago, when dinosaurs were disappearing, ants decided to become the first farmers.
  2. Study of Insects Organization: Today, ants collect fresh leaves, or other organic material, to grow fungus, and harvest the decomposed proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates.
  3. What are Pheromones and How do Ants Use Pheromones:
    ​To support and defend their colony, ants developed the ability to share information, by secreting, gathering, and interpreting chemical fumes, called pheromone.
  4. Decentralized Government: Interestingly, each worker seems to behave differently, when exposed to the same signal.  The more sensitive workers are constantly busy, while the large majority of ants remains idle, saving energy, and waiting for peak activity calls.
  5. Decentralized Social Media: Compared to ants, human society started only recently, to develop decentralized social media and information sharing technologies.   Many fear, job reduction, and increased social injustice, from efficiency gains. 
  6. Best Welfare System to Establish a New Social Contract for the Machine Age: Will Mankind continue to follow the trail left by ants?  Can we learn from the study of insects how to support inactive workers, and replicate the ant welfare systems for human colonies?

Read fables about insects' life + best welfare system​


'Why bother about winter?'

said the Grasshopper.

When the winter came the

Grasshopper had no food

and found itself dying of

hungerThe Grasshopper

knew then that it is best to

prepare for days of need.

Aesop / La Fontaine fables

stage animals including ants and insects but don't always do justice to scientific facts like the ant welfare system.